From the period of 1939 until 1944 Poland was occupied
by Nazi Germany. The main oppressive function was carried
out by the Gestapo (Secret State Police of Nazi Germany).
After the end of WWII, Poland fell under a communist regime
for more than 40 years.
The project “Horizons” presents photographs of the stairs
leading to these basements of former Gestapo, NKVD, and
later UB headquarters and prisons situated in different cities,
which very often contained solitary prison cells, interrogation
rooms, and rooms where executions were carried out
between 1944 and 1956.
UB combined the punitive functions and functions of the
special secret services. The NKVD and UB spied on the
population, fought dissidents, and imprisoned and eliminated
objectionable “unwanted” people.
After 1956, UB was replaced with SB (Security Service of
the Ministry of Internal Affairs), which operated until 1989.